In his dissertation "Rhythmic and dynamic organization" Hardjono introduces the Four Phase Model. The Four Phase Model is an elegant and powerful model for managers and management consultants to analyse the current organization, and next determine what organizational control points are and what kind of interventions should be used to maintain the strategy.
The current strategy is compared against the most sensible strategy. By using the Four Phase Model the discrepancy between the current strategy and the sensible strategy is than clearly visible. The model then provides guidelines for an organization change and to eliminate this discrepancy.
Set-up of the model
As indicated in the model below the Four-Phase model is divided in four different circles. The central circle stands for 'Material'. This circle is followed by 'Commercial'. After this, 'Socialisation' is the main focus in the third circle. Finally, the main focus of the outer circle is 'Intellectual'. In each circle different interventions can be formulated which can be combined with each other.
Application of the interventions
The interventions, which are linked to the different phases, help to give multiple indications of actions which can be performed to achieve the result that is linked to the particular phase. Interventions that can be linked to the focus on change are:
For the external focus the same procedure can be performed. For this stage of the Four-Phase-model, four different interventions can be formulated. These indicators help to achieve an external focus inside a company. Like indicated in the model the interventions can be analyzed from the inside to the outside. The interventions are:
The third focus is the internal focus. Just like the two previous focus areas, four different interventions can be formulated. These interventions can be analyzed from the inside to the outside. The four interventions that belong to this phase are:
The last main phase that can be indicated from the Four-Phase model is the focus on control. Once again four new interventions can be formulated. These four last interventions are:
Combining the focus areas
When the four interventions from the two different quadrant (e.g. External and Control) are linked with each other a new focues area arise. As indicated in the model below, four new focus areas are created. These focus areas are:
Exteral vs. Control = Effectiveness
External vs. Change = Creativity
Internal vs. Control = Efficiency
Internal vs. Change = Flexibility
Formulation of prestation criteria
After al the different quadrant and corresponding internvetions are discussed, it is time for the prestation criteria. These arise when the focus areas are combined with each other. This is has already been indicated in the model above. For the new focus are four new prestation criteria can be formulated. Again this has been done on the basis of the four different layers in the model (Material, Commercial, Socialisation and Intellectual)
The first focus area, 'effectiveness', which is created by combining the external focus and the focus on control, the main purpose is how succesful an organisation is in achieving their objectives. The four prestation criteria are:
- Executable plans
The second focus area is created when the two regular focus areas, external focus and focus on change are combined. As a result of this, the new focus area 'Creativity' will arise. The main idea behind this focus area is the capabilty of an organisation to generate new products and searching for new market opportunities. The four prestation criteria which are linked to this focus area are:
The third focus area is created by combining the foces on change and the internal focus. The result of this is the neq focus area 'flexibility'. The underlying idea is based on the ability of an organisation to renew en change themselves. The prestation criteria associated with this phase are:
The final focus area that can be created is from the combination of the internal focus and the focus on control. The new focus area is 'efficiency'. In this focus area the overall reasoning is the extent to which the planned efforst agree with the actual efforts. The four and last prestation criteria are:
Now all the phases, interventions and prestation criteria are discussed the next step is to interpret the further elaboration of the model. When someone want to start new business they are positioned in the bottom left of the model (Creativity). Then the model goes clockwise. This means that the next phase in starting new business is effectiveness. The model is a vicious circle. This means that when the last phase (Flexibility) has been achieved, new business can be created again (Creativity).
Finally, a very important issue by the implementation of the Four-Phase model is the equal division of the interventions (50/50). This means that different interventions can be linked with eachother. The model is split into two parts as to the interventions. For example, when an organisation is situated in the focus area 'Effectiveness', the interventions of Efficiency and Flexibilty also have to keep in mind. For each focus area, it is important to look forward and backward in the model.
For an article about the Four-Phase model, please click here.